English, French, Georgian, German, Russian and a few other languages, e.
Definitions The difficulties associated with defining this term exactly or defining it at all are well documented.
Unlike other crimes, which usually involve one act, stalking is a series of actions that occur over a period of time. Although stalking is illegal in most areas of the world, some of the actions that contribute to stalking may be legal, such as gathering information, calling someone on the phone, texting, sending gifts, emailing, or instant messaging.
They become illegal when they breach the legal definition of harassment e. In fact, United Kingdom law states the incident only has to happen twice when the harasser should be aware their behavior is unacceptable e. Scholars note that the majority of men and women admit engaging in various stalking-like behaviors following a breakup, but stop such behaviors over time, suggesting that "engagement in low levels of unwanted pursuit behaviors for a relatively short amount of time, particularly in the context of a relationship break-up, may be normative for heterosexual dating relationships occurring within U.
They may engage in vandalism and property damage or make physical attacks that are meant to frighten. Less common are sexual assaults. It is rarely used for stalking as portrayed by the media since only a small minority of cases in the survey involved such behaviour.
Moreover, the separated acts that make up the intrusion cannot by themselves cause the mental abuse, but do taken together cumulative effect. One participant, often a woman, likely wishes to end the relationship entirely, but may find herself unable to easily do so.
The other participant, often but not always a man, wishes to escalate the relationship. It has been described as a close relationship because the duration, frequency, and intensity of contact may rival that of a more traditional conjunctive dating relationship.
Victims who had been in a previous intimate relationship with their stalker. In addition, victims who have "date stalkers" are less likely to experience violence by their stalkers.
A "date stalker" is considered an individual who had an intimate relationship with the victim but it was short-lived. Amongst male stalking victims, most are part of this category.
This category of victims also includes neighbor stalking. These are victims who have been stalked by patients, clients, or students whom they have had a professional relationship with. Certain professions such as health care providers, teachers, and lawyers are at a higher risk for stalking.
The stalkers of these victims tend to visit them in their workplace which means that they are either an employer, employee, or a customer. These victims are typically unaware of how their stalkers began stalking because typically these stalkers form a sense of admiration for their victims from a distance.
Most of these victims are individuals who are portrayed heavily on media outlets but can also include individuals such as politicians and athletes. Census Bureau for the U. She says, "gender is associated with the types of emotional reactions that are experienced by recipients of stalking related events, including the degree of fear experienced by the victim.
She discusses how victims might view certain forms of stalking as normal because of gender socialization influences on the acceptability of certain behaviors. She emphasizes that in the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States, strangers are considered more dangerous when it comes to stalking than a former partner.
Media also plays an important role due to portrayals of male stalking behavior as acceptable, influencing men into thinking it is normal.
She also mentions coercive control theory, "future research will be needed to determine if this theory can predict how changes in social structures and gender-specific norms will result in variations in rates of stalking for men versus women over time in the United States and across the world.
However, most stalkers are nonpsychotic and may exhibit disorders or neuroses such as major depressionadjustment disorderor substance dependenceas well as a variety of personality disorders such as antisocialborderlineor narcissistic.
Rejected stalkers follow their victims in order to reverse, correct, or avenge a rejection e. Resentful stalkers make a vendetta because of a sense of grievance against the victims — motivated mainly by the desire to frighten and distress the victim.
Intimacy seekers seek to establish an intimate, loving relationship with their victim. Incompetent suitors, despite poor social or courting skills, have a fixationor in some cases, a sense of entitlement to an intimate relationship with those who have attracted their amorous interest.
Their victims are most often already in a dating relationship with someone else. Predatory stalkers spy on the victim in order to prepare and plan an attack — often sexual — on the victim.
In addition to Mullen et al. This research culminated in one of the most comprehensive books written to date on the subject. It is considered the "gold standard" as a reference to stalking crimes, victim protection, safety planning, security and threat assessment published by CRC Press, Inc.
Both the vengeance stalker and terrorist stalker the latter sometimes called the political stalker do not, in contrast with some of the aforementioned types of stalkers, seek a personal relationship with their victims but rather force them to emit a certain response.
For example, most prosecutions in this stalking category have been against anti-abortionists who stalk doctors in an attempt to discourage the performance of abortions.
Intimacy-seeking stalkers often have delusional disorders involving erotomanic delusions. With rejected stalkers, the continual clinging to a relationship of an inadequate or dependent person couples with the entitlement of the narcissistic personality, and the persistent jealousy of the paranoid personality.
In contrast, resentful stalkers demonstrate an almost "pure culture of persecution ", with delusional disorders of the paranoid type, paranoid personalities, and paranoid schizophrenia.funny research papers urban planning joan collins homework uniworld research paper on leonardo da vinci xiii physic homework help geometry textbook major research.
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