History and Major Authors a. Carol Gilligan While early strains of care ethics can be detected in the writings of feminist philosophers such as Mary Wollstonecraft, Catherine and Harriet Beecher, and Charlotte Perkins, it was first most explicitly articulated by Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings in the early s. While a graduate student at Harvard, Gilligan wrote her dissertation outlining a different path of moral development than the one described by Lawrence Kohlberg, her mentor. Kohlberg had posited that moral development progressively moves toward more universalized and principled thinking and had also found that girls, when later included in his studies, scored significantly lower than boys.
Magazine Ethical Leadership Guide: It is a leadership issue and the chief executive must set the example. Every leader will make ethical decisions, whether or not they acknowledge them at the time. But the decisions they do make can determine whether their leadership is based on an ethical framework or not.
Before detailing a few examples of ethical leaders, we turn our attention to the advantages and disadvantages of being an ethical leader. The idea of ethical behavior can be different depending on when, from whom and how you ask the question and therefore, the theory requires an understanding of the definition and context of ethics.
Ethical behavior is a tricky subject and the difficulties in defining ethics date back to the beginning of humanity. The definition of ethical behavior has even changed within similar cultures as society has developed and changed.
According to Patricia Pinnell and Shirley Eagan from West Virginia University Extension, people use four common questions for determining the ethics of an action. The child on your Morality and ethical framework. Are you OK for doing the action, even if your children are watching?
The front paper story. Are you comfortable for being on the receiving end of this action or decisions? The rule of universality. Would it be OK if everyone in the world would behave or act that way? The idea of the questions is that if you can answer yes, the action or behavior is likely an ethical one.
Ethics is therefore open to interpretation. Nonetheless, there are a few defined interpretations of how ethics can be viewed, especially in terms of behavior.
Below chart shows some of the common ways of defining ethics. This means that the right action might be wrong in another context. As an example, you might be right to lie to someone when they ask your opinion, even though lying in other situations would be considered ethically wrong.
What is accepted and ethical in one culture might not be so in another. A modern example is the question of animal slaughter, which in certain cultures follows a strict cultural or religious code, which might seem wrong to a Westerner.
Professional ethics The right is determined by a code of ethics of a specific profession and people in the profession should follow these. The code of ethics, or the Hippocratic Oath, is a good example of professional ethics.
You should always follow your inner voice when judging your own actions. Rule-based ethics The rules of specific group or organization determine what is right. An organization might give a guidebook that determines which behaviors are acceptable when dealing with customers, for example.
Everyone should be treated fairly and equally. Ethics based on general principles Assumption that there are generally accepted principles, which guide human behavior and therefore, determine what is right.
When discussing ethics, people often think ethics and morality are the same thing. But in order to understand ethical leadership, it can be beneficial to view these two concepts differently.
One of the most important ethical philosophers of modern times has been John Rawlswho made a clear distinction between comprehensive moral systems and less comprehensive systems.
The distinction can help better understand the idea of ethical leadership. To Rawls, the two differ in the following manner: Less comprehensive moral systems would only cover areas of politics, social, and economics.
Therefore, morality is generally based on much broader set of values and beliefs. These can or cannot be logically coherent. Whereas ethics is based on social norms, following coherent philosophical principles.
Nonetheless, morality can form a basis for ethical leadership, such as ethical leadership.
The modern context of ethical leadership Ethical leadership is essentially a leadership theory, which uses the above ethical concepts as a guide to managing subordinates. The rise of ethical leadership can be traced back to the scandals inside the corporate world in recent decades.
In a qualitative study published inPlinio, Young and Lavery concluded the lack of ethical leadership and poor ethical behavior is among the biggest problems modern organizations face.
The theory understands the importance of trust and good relationships.Integrating ethical leadership. In terms of integrating ethical leadership and ethical framework into an organization, the focus on openness and communication is the key.
Albert Einstein Quotes Quotations on Philosophy, Physics, Religion, Science, Metaphysics, Humanity, War, Peace, Education, Knowledge, Morality and Freedom.
The ethics of artificial intelligence is the part of the ethics of technology specific to robots and other artificially intelligent beings. It is typically  divided into roboethics, a concern with the moral behavior of humans as they design, construct, use and treat artificially intelligent beings, and machine ethics, which is concerned with the .
Common Morality: Deciding What to Do [Bernard Gert] on rutadeltambor.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Moral problems do not always come in the form of great social controversies. More often, the moral decisions we make are made quietly. Common Morality: Deciding What to Do [Bernard Gert] on rutadeltambor.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Moral problems do not always come in the form of great social controversies. More often, the moral decisions we make are made quietly. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility, which is usually defined as that which produces the greatest well-being of the greatest number of people, and in some cases, sentient animals.
Jeremy Bentham, the founder of utilitarianism, described utility as the sum of all pleasure that results from an action, minus the suffering of.