States generally rely on a claim to some form of political legitimacy in order to maintain domination over their subjects. Divine right of kings The rise of the modern day state system was closely related to changes in political thought, especially concerning the changing understanding of legitimate state power and control. Early modern defenders of absolutism Absolute monarchysuch as Thomas Hobbes and Jean Bodin undermined the doctrine of the divine right of kings by arguing that the power of kings should be justified by reference to the people. Hobbes in particular went further to argue that political power should be justified with reference to the individual Hobbes wrote in the time of the English Civil warnot just to the people understood collectively.
This is important because ecofeminism did not emerge as a distinctly philosophical position until the late s and early- to mid s. A note about terminology is relevant here. Many ecofeminist philosophers distinguish between the oppression of women and the unjustified domination of nature.
They do so on the grounds that only those beings that have such characteristics as rationality, cognitive capacity, or sentiency can be oppressed.
In Western contexts, nonhuman natural entities such as rocks, plants, rivers, or generically nature are presumed to not have any such characteristics.
As such, unlike women, they cannot be oppressed although they can be unjustly dominated. What about nonhuman animals? Many ecofeminist philosophers include animals, especially domesticated animals, among those beings that are capable of being oppressed, but deny that nature has this capability.
They talk about the oppression of animals but not of nature. However, they will refer to the unjustified dominations of women, nonhuman animals, and nature.
Some conceptual frameworks are oppressive. When an oppressive conceptual framework is patriarchal, it functions to justify the subordination of women by men. Warren argues that these isms of domination share conceptual roots in five features of an oppressive conceptual framework.
In canonical philosophy, value hierarchical thinking typically puts men Up and women Down, culture Up and nature Down. In canonical Western philosophy, the dualisms of male versus female and culture versus nature have historically done this; they have ascribed greater value to that which is identified with males or culture than to that which is identified with females or nature.
According to these value dualisms, it is better to be male or culture-identified than to be female or nature-identified.
The third and fourth features of oppressive conceptual frameworks are that they conceive of power and privilege in ways that systematically advantage the Ups over the Downs whether or not the Ups choose to exercise that power and privilege.
In a classist society, wealthy people have the power and privilege to mobilize resources to self-determined ends. Sometimes this power and privilege enables the wealthy to not notice the ways socioeconomic status is a significant challenge to equality of opportunity.
This is the moral premise that superiority justifies subordination. The logic of domination provides the alleged moral justification for keeping Downs down. Typically this justification takes the form that the Up has some characteristic e.
Note that it is possible to have the first four features of an oppressive conceptual framework yet not have a case of oppression or unjustified domination.
For example, responsible parents may exercise legitimate power and privilege over their children such as the power to decide when to put their child to bed or have the privilege to drivewithout thereby being involved in any sort of oppressive parent-child relationship.
Parent-child relationships are only oppressive if the logic of domination is in place; it is what provides the alleged justification for treating children as inferior and justifiably dominated. Warren argues that the five features of an oppressive conceptual framework spotlight some of the shared conceptual roots of the unjustified dominations of women, nonhuman animals, and nature.
Many ecofeminist philosophers explore the ways these shared conceptual roots function in real life to keep intact unjustified institutions and practices of oppression and domination. Consider some examples of how language does this. The English language animalizes and naturalizes women in cultural contexts where women and nonhuman animals are already viewed as inferior to men and male-identified culture.
Women are referred to pejoratively as dogs, cats, catty, pussycats, pussies, pets, bunnies, dumb bunnies, cows, sows, foxes, chicks, bitches, beavers, old bats, old hens, old crows, queen bees, cheetahs, vixen, serpents, bird-brains, hare-brains, elephants, and whales.
Women cackle, go to hen parties, henpeck their husbands, become old biddies old hens no longer sexually attractive or able to reproduceand social butterflies. Similarly, the English language feminizes nature in cultural contexts that view women and nature as inferior to men and male-identified culture.
Mother Nature not Father Nature is raped, mastered, controlled, conquered, mined; her not his secrets are penetrated, and her womb men don't have one is put into the service of the man of science not woman of science, or simply scientist.
|The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature||My friend Mark sent me this video link — if you have 20 minutes, check it out…. Where would one begin?|
|Moral Psychology: Empirical Approaches (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)||Notes on The Story of Stuff Summary: This document supplements The Story of Stuff by Annie Leonard, reinforcing the materials economy framework.|
|An overview of the inventions which have changed the course of history [1900-1944]||What is Moral Psychology? Contemporary moral psychology—the study of human thought and behavior in ethical contexts—is resolutely interdisciplinary:|
|Introduction: What is Moral Psychology?||The time has come to rethink wilderness. This will seem a heretical claim to many environmentalists, since the idea of wilderness has for decades been a fundamental tenet—indeed, a passion—of the environmental movement, especially in the United States.|
Virgin timber is felled, cut down. Fertile not potent soil is tilled, and land that lies fallow is useless or barren, like a woman unable to conceive a child.
As Carol Adams argueslanguage that feminizes nature and naturalizes women describes, reflects, and perpetuates unjustified patriarchal domination by failing to see the extent to which the dominations of women, nonhuman animals, and nature are culturally not just metaphorically analogous and sanctioned.A state can be distinguished from a rutadeltambor.com government is the particular group of people, the administrative bureaucracy that controls the state apparatus at a given time.
That is, governments are the means through which state power is employed. Start studying WIS STUDY GUIDE. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
leopolds classic treatise on game management argues for the use of natural resources without destroying the possibility of future generations using them birds of old world deserts that fly long distances go .
The Story of Stuff is a fun, clear, lively, and timely treatment of the materials economy that shows how the real industrial economy intersects with sustainability.
Although the economy appears to undermine sustainability, it works for the burgeoning global middle classes, for now, as the middle class increases consumption, the demand that.
Shelves: around-the-world, crime, history, non-fiction, ultimate-reading-list If you ask an educated American to name the worst despots and atrocities of the twentieth century, you'll immediately hear such names as Hitler, Stalin, Mao and Pol Pot/5.
This article contains my thoughts and a short review of “The Story of Stuff That’s capitalism. But it’s kept in check, ideally, by market competition and consumer demand (like what this video recommends). technology does change fast. And in some cases, yes, this is planned obsolescence. But not in the way Annie Leonard described.
Posted at rutadeltambor.com on November 8, by Michael Froomkin This is very cool: The People’s Bailout — Occupy Wall Street plans to buy distressed consumer debt for pennies on the dollar and then forgive it. OWS is going to start buying distressed debt (medical bills, student loans, etc.) in .